For decades, cytotoxic therapy was considered ineffective for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Earlier therapies such as estramustine and mitoxantrone received regulatory approval based upon improvement in palliative endpoints. In 2004, docetaxel became the first treatment to demonstrate a significant survival benefit in patients with mCRPC based on two randomized phase III studies, TAX327 and SWOG 99-16. Cabazitaxel, a third-generation taxane, was chosen for clinical development based on its decreased affinity for the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein, which is a frequent cause of drug resistance in docetaxel-resistant preclinical models. In 2010, cabazitaxel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as the first therapy to show a survival benefit for the treatment of patients with docetaxel-refractory mCRPC. This review summarizes the existing literature on the use of cabazitaxel, focusing on its efficacy and safety in combination with prednisone in the treatment of mCRPC, as well as its role in an era of new therapeutic options.
Keywords: cabazitaxel; castration resistant; docetaxel; efficacy; prostate cancer; safety; taxane.