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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2014 May 28;13:49.
doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-49.

The Role of Meal Viscosity and Oat β-Glucan Characteristics in Human Appetite Control: A Randomized Crossover Trial

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

The Role of Meal Viscosity and Oat β-Glucan Characteristics in Human Appetite Control: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Candida J Rebello et al. Nutr J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat, and improve the nutritional quality of their diets. Viscosity generated by oat β-glucan, influences gastrointestinal mechanisms that mediate satiety. Differences in the source, processing treatments, and interactions with other constituents in the food matrix affect the amount, solubility, molecular weight, and structure of the β-glucan in products, which in turn influences the viscosity. This study examined the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite, and assessed differences in meal viscosity and β-glucan characteristics among the cereals.

Methods: Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric breakfast meals containing instant oatmeal (IO), old-fashioned oatmeal (SO) or RTEC in random order at least a week apart. Each breakfast meal contained 218 kcal (150 kcal cereal, and 68 kcal milk) Visual analogue scales measuring appetite were completed before breakfast, and over four hours, following the meal. Starch digestion kinetics, meal viscosities, and β-glucan characteristics for each meal were determined. Appetite responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes over time.

Results: IO increased fullness (p = 0.04), suppressed desire to eat (p = 0.01) and reduced prospective intake (p < 0.01) more than the RTEC over four hours, and consistently at the 60 minute time-point. SO reduced prospective intake (p = 0.04) more than the RTEC. Hunger scores were not significantly different except that IO reduced hunger more than the RTEC at the 60 minute time-point. IO and SO had higher β-glucan content, molecular weight, gastric viscosity, and larger hydration spheres than the RTEC, and IO had greater viscosity after oral and initial gastric digestion (initial viscosity) than the RTEC.

Conclusion: IO and SO improved appetite control over four hours compared to RTEC. Initial viscosity of oatmeal may be especially important for reducing appetite.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Visual analog scale ratings for hunger (n = 48) before and after consumption of instant oatmeal (IO), old fashioned oatmeal (SO) and a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC). (A) Differences in hunger ratings among the three breakfast cereals as assessed by AUC were not statistically significant. *Least squares mean was different between IO and the RTEC at 60 minutes (p = 0.04). (B) Fullness ratings were different between IO and the RTEC by AUC. *Least squares mean was different between IO and the RTEC at 60 minutes (p < 0.01). (C) Desire to eat ratings were different between IO and the RTEC by AUC. *Least squares means were different between IO and the RTEC at 60 minutes (p < 0.01) and 120 minutes (p < 0.02). (D) Prospective intake ratings were different between the two types of oatmeal and the RTEC by AUC. *Least squares means were different between IO and the RTEC at 30 minutes (p < 0.02), 60 minutes (p < 0.01), and 120 minutes (p < 0.01).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Least squares means of the molecular weight (Mw) in Daltons (Da) (A) and radius of gyration (Rg) in nanometers (nm) (B), of the β-glucan content of instant oatmeal (IO), old fashioned oatmeal (SO) and the ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC). Both varieties of oatmeal had higher molecular weight and radius of gyration that the RTEC (p < 0.01). Values are mean ± standard error.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Mean viscosities of oatmeal and ready-to-eat-breakfast cereal (RTEC) meals observed at the in vitro simulation of digestion. Viscosity values are the means of three replicates and expressed in centipoise (cP) ± standard error. Instant oatmeal (IO) exhibited a higher viscosity than old fashioned oatmeal (SO) (p = 0.03) and the RTEC (p = 0.02) after oral and initial gastric digestion at time = 0 (A). IO (p = 0.01) as well as SO (p < 0.05) demonstrated significantly greater viscosity than the RTEC during the remainder of the in vitro gastric simulation process (B).

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