Influence of electroencephalography neurofeedback training on episodic memory: a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study

Memory. 2015;23(5):683-94. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2014.921713. Epub 2014 Jun 2.


The relationships between memory processes and oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) are well established. Neurofeedback training (NFT) may cause participants to better regulate their brain EEG oscillations. The present study is a double-blind sham-controlled design investigating the effect of NFT on memory. NFT included up-training upper alpha (UA) band, up-training sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) band and sham protocol. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups. NFT sessions (30 min each) took place twice weekly for a total of 10 sessions while memory testing took place pre- and post-training. The results indicate dissociation between SMR and UA NFT and different memory processes. While the SMR protocol resulted in improving automatic, item-specific and familiarity-based processes in memory, the UA protocol resulted in improved strategic and controlled recollection. The implications of the results are discussed.

Keywords: Familiarity; Memory; Neurofeedback; Randomized control design; Recollection.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Brain Waves / physiology*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Electroencephalography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Memory, Episodic*
  • Neurofeedback / physiology*
  • Young Adult