Background: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are all metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP2C19, which is inhibited by the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these PPIs on the serum concentrations of citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline.
Methods: Serum concentrations from patients treated with citalopram, escitalopram, or sertraline were obtained from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring database, and samples from subjects concomitantly using PPIs were identified. Dose-adjusted SSRI serum concentrations were calculated to compare data from those treated and those not treated with PPIs.
Results: Citalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+35.3%; P < 0.001), esomeprazole (+32.8%; P < 0.001), and lansoprazole (+14.7%; P = 0.043). Escitalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+93.9%; P < 0.001), esomeprazole (+81.8%; P < 0.001), lansoprazole (+20.1%; P = 0.008), and pantoprazole (+21.6%; P = 0.002). Sertraline concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with esomeprazole (+38.5%; P = 0.0014).
Conclusions: The effect of comedication with PPIs on the serum concentration of SSRIs is more pronounced for omeprazole and esomeprazole than for lansoprazole and pantoprazole, and escitalopram is affected to a greater extent than are citalopram and sertraline. When omeprazole or esomeprazole are used in combination with escitalopram, a 50% dose reduction of the latter should be considered.