Echocardiographic evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot

Echocardiography. 2015 Jan:32 Suppl 2:S148-56. doi: 10.1111/echo.12437. Epub 2014 May 29.


Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a cyanotic heart disease consisting of nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Early total correction is the treatment of choice and these patients with repaired TOF are increasingly seen in adult practice. This review addresses echocardiographic evaluation of TOF, corrected TOF, its sequelae and various complications. A working knowledge of TOF assessment is essential for all adult cardiologists and sonographers.

Keywords: echocardiography; pulmonary valve stenosis; tetralogy of Fallot.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Echocardiography, Doppler*
  • Female
  • Heart Septal Defects / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Septal Defects / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary Valve Stenosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Pulmonary Valve Stenosis / surgery
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / diagnostic imaging*
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / physiopathology
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome