International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand 2013 Committee's report on wrist dart-throwing motion

J Hand Surg Am. 2014 Jul;39(7):1433-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.02.035.


This report updates information on wrist dart-throwing (DT) motion, based on the most recent research published on the kinematics, kinetics, and clinical applications of DT motion. A wide range of DT planes exists. "Pure" DT motion is done along an oblique plane that intercepts the coronal and sagittal planes at the zero position, and occurs almost exclusively at the midcarpal joint with near zero scaphoid and lunate motion. "Functional" DT motion such as a hammering is done along an oblique plane that is almost parallel to the pure DT plane, but that has an offset toward the dorsal side. Functional DT rotation has greater scaphoid and lunate motion compared with pure DT motion. Midcarpal arthrodesis adversely affects DT motion compared with radiocarpal arthrodesis. During a DT motion, the mean and peak tendon forces of the flexor carpi ulnaris and the extensor carpi radialis longus were the greatest among wrist motors. By performing a task along the plane of DT motion, the scapholunate (SL) joint was stable and SL ligament elongation was minimal in healthy subjects. However, a more recent study of patients with SL dissociation revealed that DT exercises applied tensile forces on the SL ligament and induced an SL gap.

Keywords: Biomechanics; dart-thrower's motion; dart-throwing motion; kinematics; midcarpal arthrodesis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthrodesis / methods*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Carpal Joints / surgery*
  • Female
  • Hand / surgery*
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Ligaments, Articular / physiology
  • Male
  • Motion
  • Range of Motion, Articular / physiology*
  • Reference Values
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Societies, Medical
  • Tendons / physiology
  • Wrist Joint*