Mass media coverage of HPV vaccination in Romania: a content analysis

Health Educ Res. 2014 Dec;29(6):977-92. doi: 10.1093/her/cyu027. Epub 2014 Jun 2.


Romania has the highest cervical cancer burden in Europe. Despite the implementation of two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes, the uptake remained extremely low and the programmes were discontinued. Given that media are a common source of information for the public and may influence vaccination decisions, this article sought to explore the content and quality of HPV vaccine media coverage in Romania. We conducted a content analysis of 271 media reports (from newspapers, magazines, videos and informational websites) published online between November 2007 and January 2012. Overall, results indicated that 31.4% of the materials were neutral, 28% were negative or extremely negative, 17% were mixed, while 23.6% were positive towards the vaccine. The most dominant vaccine-related concerns were side effects and insufficient testing. Elementary information about the vaccine and HPV was constantly left out and sometimes inaccuracies were found. Negatively disposed reports were more likely to contain incorrect data about vaccine efficacy and less likely to provide comprehensive information about the vaccine and HPV-related diseases. Some dimensions of media coverage varied across time and media outlets. The present findings suggest that educational interventions are greatly needed as a response to suboptimal and incomplete media coverage of HPV vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Health Promotion / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs*
  • Mass Media*
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Romania / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology*