Nitrophenyl-based caged neurotransmitters

Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2014 Jun 2;2014(6):584-90. doi: 10.1101/pdb.top081794.


Nitroaromatic photochemical protecting groups were developed for organic synthesis in 1966. Since the early 1990s, this type of chromophore has been used by neuroscientists to liberate a wide variety of amino acid neurotransmitters such as ACh, glutamate, GABA, and glycine, among others. Since 2001, several laboratories have used two-photon excitation of nitroaromatic cages for highly localized uncaging of glutamate in acute brain slices.

MeSH terms

  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Light
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Nitrophenols / metabolism*


  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Nitrophenols