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. 2014 Jun 2;6(6):a016758.
doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a016758.

Clathrin-independent Pathways of Endocytosis

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Free PMC article

Clathrin-independent Pathways of Endocytosis

Satyajit Mayor et al. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

There are many pathways of endocytosis at the cell surface that apparently operate at the same time. With the advent of new molecular genetic and imaging tools, an understanding of the different ways by which a cell may endocytose cargo is increasing by leaps and bounds. In this review we explore pathways of endocytosis that occur in the absence of clathrin. These are referred to as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here we primarily focus on those pathways that function at the small scale in which some have distinct coats (caveolae) and others function in the absence of specific coated intermediates. We follow the trafficking itineraries of the material endocytosed by these pathways and finally discuss the functional roles that these pathways play in cell and tissue physiology. It is likely that these pathways will play key roles in the regulation of plasma membrane area and tension and also control the availability of membrane during cell migration.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
The diversity of endocytic pathways available at the cell surface of metazoan cells. The schematic outlines multiple means by which a cargo located at the plasma membrane or in the extracellular milieu enters the endocytic pathway in metazoan cells. Dynamin-dependent pathways (+; circles) are typically associated with small-scale coat-mediated invaginations, such as clathrin or caveolar pathways. The dynamin-independent pathways reflect a larger diversity of forms, ranging from the small-scale processes to the larger scale membrane invaginations. The main effectors of the CIE pathways are indicated below their primary invaginations. All the dynamin-independent mechanisms appear to use actin filament (red bars) polymerization machinery.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Trafficking itineraries of endocytosed cargo in a typical mammalian cell. The diagram maps the trafficking itineraries of cargo endocytosed via multiple means including the clathrin-mediated pathway (see text for details). A number of endocytic compartments and destinies are available for cargo endocytosed via the CIE, whereas clathrin and caveolar pathways typically deliver their cargo directly to the sorting endosomal system. The CIE pathways often use distinct molecular machinery and separate recycling compartments to return cargo internalized via these routes.

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