Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2014 Jun;43(2):517-28. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.02.005.


Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels.

Keywords: Cardiac myocyte; Heart; Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Subclinical; Thyroid hormone; Triiodothyronine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Thyroid Diseases / complications*
  • Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology
  • Thyroid Hormones / physiology*


  • Thyroid Hormones