Hypoplastic left heart syndrome in PAGOD syndrome

Pediatr Int. 2014 Jun;56(3):422-4. doi: 10.1111/ped.12280.


Chromosomal abnormalities as well as non-cardiac anomalies have been identified as independent risk factors for surgical morbidity and mortality in Fontan palliation. The combination of malformations consisting of pulmonary hypoplasia, agonadism (sex reversal), omphalocele, and diaphragmatic defect is compatible with pulmonary artery and lung hypoplasia, agonadism, omphalocele, and diaphragmatic defect (PAGOD). Most cases have been associated with cardiac disease, particularly hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) that is potentially destined for Fontan palliation. Reported herein is the case of a Japanese female infant diagnosed with PAGOD syndrome along with HLHS (mitral atresia and aortic atresia), in whom intractable respiratory failure manifested as bilateral eventration of the diaphragm and presumed right lung hypoplasia. These characteristic pulmonary lesions associated with the syndrome precluded use of the Fontan pathway.

Keywords: PAGOD syndrome; congenital heart disease; genetics; horseshoe lung; hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Dextrocardia / complications*
  • Female
  • Genitalia, Female / abnormalities*
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital / complications*
  • Humans
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / complications*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lung / abnormalities

Supplementary concepts

  • Kennerknecht Sorgo Oberhoffer syndrome