Temporal changes in serum biomarkers and risk for progression of gastric precancerous lesions: a longitudinal study

Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 15;136(2):425-34. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29005. Epub 2014 Jun 19.


Effectively managing precancerous lesions is crucial to reducing the gastric cancer (GC) burden. We evaluated associations of temporal changes in multiple serological markers (pepsinogen I [PGI], PGII, PGI/II ratio, gastrin-17 and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG) with risk for progression of gastric precancerous lesions. From 1997 to 2011, repeated esophagogastroduodenoscopies with gastric mucosal biopsies and blood sample collections were conducted on 2,039 participants (5,070 person-visits) in the Zhuanghe Gastric Diseases Screening Program, Liaoning, China. Serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized histologic criteria. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using generalized estimating equations for correlated binary outcomes. The ORs for progression of gastric conditions comparing those whose serum PGI, PGII, and anti-H. pylori IgG levels increased ≥ 50% relative to those whose decreased ≥ 50% were, respectively 1.67 (CI, 1.22-2.28), 1.80 (CI, 1.40-2.33) and 1.93 (CI, 1.48-2.52). The OR for those whose PGI/II ratio decreased ≥ 50% relative to those whose increased ≥ 50% was 1.40 (CI, 1.08-1.81), and for those whose PGII and anti-H. pylori IgG levels both increased ≥ 50% relative to those whose levels both decreased ≥ 50% the OR was 3.18 (CI, 2.05-4.93). Changes in gastrin-17 were not statistically significantly associated with progression. These findings suggest that temporal changes in serum PGI, PGII, PGI/II ratio, and anti-H. pylori IgG levels (especially PGII and anti-H. pylori IgG combined) may be useful for assessing and managing risk for progression of gastric precancerous lesions.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastric precancerous lesions; pepsinogens; progression; serological biomarkers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Disease Progression
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrins / blood*
  • Helicobacter Infections / blood
  • Helicobacter Infections / complications*
  • Helicobacter Infections / microbiology
  • Helicobacter pylori / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Pepsinogen A / blood*
  • Pepsinogen C / blood*
  • Precancerous Conditions / blood
  • Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis*
  • Precancerous Conditions / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / blood
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / etiology


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Gastrins
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • gastrin 17
  • Pepsinogen C
  • Pepsinogen A