Reassignment of scattered emission photons in multifocal multiphoton microscopy

Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 5;4:5153. doi: 10.1038/srep05153.


Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) achieves fast imaging by simultaneously scanning multiple foci across different regions of specimen. The use of imaging detectors in MMM, such as CCD or CMOS, results in degradation of image signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to the scattering of emitted photons. SNR can be partly recovered using multianode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMT). In this design, however, emission photons scattered to neighbor anodes are encoded by the foci scan location resulting in ghost images. The crosstalk between different anodes is currently measured a priori, which is cumbersome as it depends specimen properties. Here, we present the photon reassignment method for MMM, established based on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation, for quantification of crosstalk between the anodes of MAPMT without a priori measurement. The method provides the reassignment of the photons generated by the ghost images to the original spatial location thus increases the SNR of the final reconstructed image.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Computer Simulation
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Liver / cytology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / instrumentation*
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Photons*
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted*
  • Signal-To-Noise Ratio
  • Thy-1 Antigens / metabolism*


  • Thy-1 Antigens
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins