The first population-based national tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ethiopia, 2010-2011

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014 Jun;18(6):635-9. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.13.0417.


Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary TB among the general adult population aged ≥15 years in 2010-2011. METHOD A nationwide, cluster-sampled, stratified (urban/rural/pastoralist), cross-sectional survey was conducted in 85 selected clusters. All consenting participants were screened for TB using: 1) chest X-ray (CXR) and 2) an interview to screen for symptoms suggestive of TB disease.

Result: Of 51,667 eligible individuals, 46,697 (90%) participated in the survey and completed at least the screening interview. CXR was performed among 46,548 (99.7%) participants. A total of 6080 (13%) participants were eligible for sputum examination. From the survey, it was estimated that in the national adult population 1) the prevalence of smear-positive TB was 108/100,000 (95%CI 73-143), and 2) that of bacteriologically confirmed TB was 277/100,000 (95%CI 208-347).

Conclusion: We found that the TB burden was lower than previously thought, which may indicate better programme performance. However, a high proportion of TB among young persons suggests that TB is circulating in the community and that there is a need for more efforts to limit the spread of TB disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Bacteriological Techniques
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethiopia / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / isolation & purification
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Radiography, Thoracic
  • Sputum / microbiology
  • Time Factors
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnostic imaging
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology*
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / microbiology
  • Young Adult