Dietary predictors of urinary environmental biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004-7

Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.040. Epub 2014 Jun 3.


Background: Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls.

Methods: Among 1101 girls (6-8 years at enrollment) from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (BCERP) study, we measured urinary exposure biomarkers for phthalates, parabens, and BPA and assessed dietary intake using 24-h recall 2-4 times. We examined the average daily servings of major and minor food groups categorized as 0 to <0.5, 0.5 to <1 and ≥ 1 servings per day. Items included dairy, eggs, fats, fish, fruit, single grains, meat, non-poultry meats, pasta, poultry and vegetables. Covariate-adjusted least squares geometric means and 95% confidence intervals of creatinine-corrected phthalate and phenol metabolite concentrations in urine were calculated in relation to food intake.

Results: Grains, flour and dry mixes and total fish consumption were positively associated with BPA and the sum of four di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) urinary metabolite concentrations. Non-fresh vegetables and poultry were both positively associated with BPA and paraben urinary concentrations. Fats, oils and poultry consumption were positively associated with BPA. Whole-fat dairy consumption was associated with ΣDEHP.

Conclusions: Some foods may contribute to child exposures to certain chemicals, and this may constitute modifiable means to reduce these environmental exposures.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Bisphenol A; Endocrine disruptors; Parabens; Phthalates.

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / urine*
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology
  • Breast Neoplasms / urine
  • Child
  • Diet* / trends
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis
  • Environmental Pollutants / adverse effects
  • Environmental Pollutants / urine*
  • Female
  • Food Packaging / trends
  • Food Preservatives / analysis
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Parabens / analysis*
  • Phenols / urine*
  • Phthalic Acids / urine*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Biomarkers
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Food Preservatives
  • Parabens
  • Phenols
  • Phthalic Acids
  • phthalic acid
  • bisphenol A