miRNAs regulate the expression of genes in both normal physiology and disease. While miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in aspects of cancer biology, these reports have generally focused on the regulation of single genes. Such single-gene approaches have significant limitations, relying on miRNA expression levels and heuristic predictions of mRNA-binding sites. This results in only circumstantial evidence of miRNA-target interaction and typically leads to large numbers of false positive predictions. Here, we used a genome-wide approach (high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation, HITS-CLIP) to define direct miRNA-mRNA interactions in three breast cancer subtypes (estrogen receptor positive, Her2 amplified, and triple negative). Focusing on steroid receptor signaling, we identified two novel regulators of the ER pathway (miR-9-5p and miR-193a/b-3p), which together target multiple genes involved in ER signaling. Moreover, this approach enabled the definition of miR-9-5p as a global regulator of steroid receptor signaling in breast cancer. We show that miRNA targets and networks defined by HITS-CLIP under physiologic conditions are predictive of patient outcomes and provide global insight into miRNA regulation in breast cancer.