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. 2014 Sep;41(9):635-43.
doi: 10.1111/joor.12192. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile

Free PMC article

Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile

M T John et al. J Oral Rehabil. .
Free PMC article


Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

Keywords: Oral Health Impact Profile; dimensions; exploratory factor analysis; factor structure; oral health-related quality of life.

Conflict of interest statement

None of the authors reported any conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1. Parallel analysis: Plot of actual (•) versus randomly (---) generated eigenvalues (y-axis range between 3 and 26 not shown)

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