The safety and tolerability of intranasal midazolam in epilepsy

Expert Rev Neurother. 2014 Jul;14(7):735-40. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2014.925398. Epub 2014 Jun 9.


Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that has clearly demonstrated to be an effective option for the acute management of epileptic seizures. It has the advantage of being water-soluble, with a rapid onset of action and it can be administered orally or intranasally, implementing an early intervention at the pre-hospital setting. This article aims to provide an overview of intranasal midazolam in the acute management of epileptic seizures. Available data suggest that midazolam 0.2 mg/kg is as effective as diazepam 0.5 mg/kg, especially in children with febrile or afebrile seizures. Local mucosal irritation seems to occur in less than one-third of cases while serious side effects such as respiratory depression in about 1%. Future studies need to be focused on adults and optimized technologies for intranasal delivery. Moreover, comparisons with buccal midazolam are warranted.

Keywords: antiepileptic drug; epilepsy; intranasal; midazolam; status epilepticus; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal*
  • Anticonvulsants / administration & dosage*
  • Anticonvulsants / adverse effects
  • Epilepsy / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Midazolam / administration & dosage*
  • Midazolam / adverse effects


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Midazolam