Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers

Food Chem. 2014 Nov 15:163:136-41. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.101. Epub 2014 May 9.


The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality.

Keywords: Amino acids; Fertilisation; Foliar application; Grapevine; Vitis vinifera.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / analysis*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Fertilizers*
  • Nitrogen / analysis
  • Phenylalanine / analysis
  • Proline / analysis
  • Urea / analysis
  • Vitis / chemistry*
  • Wine / analysis


  • Amino Acids
  • Fertilizers
  • Phenylalanine
  • Urea
  • Proline
  • Nitrogen