Immune checkpoint blockade has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for various malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown the potential benefit of modulating the immunogenicity of HCC. In addition, recent advances in tumor immunology have broadened our understanding of the complex mechanism of immune evasion. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on HCC immunology and discuss the potential of immune checkpoint blockade as a novel HCC therapy from the basic, translational, and clinical perspectives.
© 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.