Immune checkpoint blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma: current progress and future directions

Hepatology. 2014 Nov;60(5):1776-82. doi: 10.1002/hep.27246. Epub 2014 Sep 26.


Immune checkpoint blockade has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for various malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown the potential benefit of modulating the immunogenicity of HCC. In addition, recent advances in tumor immunology have broadened our understanding of the complex mechanism of immune evasion. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on HCC immunology and discuss the potential of immune checkpoint blockade as a novel HCC therapy from the basic, translational, and clinical perspectives.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • CTLA-4 Antigen / antagonists & inhibitors
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Liver Neoplasms / immunology
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / metabolism


  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • PDCD1 protein, human
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor