Prevalence of DRESS syndrome

Rev Alerg Mex. Jan-Mar 2014;61(1):14-23.

Abstract

DRESS syndrome (Drug rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is an idiosyncratic reaction (type B), characterized by peripheral eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, such as fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, atypical lymphocytes and elevation of liver enzymes at least twice its normal level or increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT) >100 U/L. Its incidence is of 1/1,000 to 10,000 exposures and its mortality is of 10%-20%. Treatment is based on steroids and on the suspension of the suspect drug. This paper reports the cases of six patients with DRESS syndrome attended at Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, from September 2012 to September 2013, which accounted for 12.5% of patients attended with adverse reactions to drugs.

El síndrome DRESS (exantema inducido por fármacos con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos) es una reacción idiosincrática (tipo B), que se distingue por eosinofilia periférica y síntomas sistémicos, como fiebre, exantema, linfadenopatía, hepatitis, linfocitos atípicos y elevación de enzimas hepáticas al menos dos veces su valor normal o incremento de la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) >100 U/L. La incidencia es de 1 por cada 1,000 a 10,000 exposiciones y su mortalidad es de 10 a 20%. El tratamiento se basa en esteroides y en la suspensión del fármaco sospechoso. Se comunican los casos de seis pacientes con síndrome DRESS atendidos en el Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, de septiembre de 2012 a septiembre de 2013, que correspondieron a 12.5% de los pacientes atendidos con reacciones adversas a fármacos.

Keywords: DRESS syndrome; Drug-reactions; Eosinophilia; Exantema; Systemic symptoms.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Aged
  • Anticonvulsants / adverse effects
  • Carbamazepine / adverse effects
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological
  • Phenytoin / adverse effects
  • Prevalence
  • Urban Population
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenytoin