PET imaging of atherosclerosis can quantify several in vivo pathological processes occurring within the arterial system. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most-commonly used PET tracer, with well-established roles in atherosclerosis imaging. In this context, the (18)F-FDG signal largely reflects tracer uptake by plaque macrophages and, therefore, inflammation with smaller contributions from other resident cell types. As a marker of plaque vulnerability, the (18)F-FDG PET signal can be used to help to identify patients at the highest risk of clinical events. (18)F-FDG PET has also been used successfully as a surrogate end point in clinical trials of antiatherosclerotic therapies. Nonetheless, imaging atherosclerosis with (18)F-FDG has several limitations. Most importantly, coronary artery imaging is problematic because (18)F-FDG accumulates in all cells that metabolize glucose, and background myocardial uptake is generally greater than any signal originating from a plaque. To help to overcome these limitations, several novel PET tracers, which might be more-specifically targeted than (18)F-FDG, have been tested in atherosclerosis imaging. These tracers are designed to track inflammation, hypoxia, neoangiogenesis, or active calcification, which are all precursors to plaque rupture and its clinical sequelae.