Antibiotics for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Sep;58(9):5054-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02606-13. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Abstract

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), namely ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), have worse outcomes with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), including increased readmissions, colectomy, and death. Oral vancomycin is recommended for the treatment of severe CDI, while metronidazole is the standard of care for nonsevere infection. We aimed to assess treatment outcomes of CDI in IBD. We conducted a retrospective observational study of inpatients with CDI and IBD from January 2006 through December 2010. CDI severity was assessed using published criteria. Outcomes included readmission for CDI within 30 days and 12 weeks, length of stay, colectomy, and death. A total of 114 patients met inclusion criteria (UC, 62; CD, 52). Thirty-day readmissions were more common among UC than CD patients (24.2% versus 9.6%; P=0.04). Same-admission colectomy occurred in 27.4% of UC patients and 0% of CD patients (P<0.01). Severe CDI was more common among UC than CD patients (32.2% versus 19.4%; P=0.12) but not statistically significant. Two patients died from CDI-associated complications (UC, 1; CD, 1). Patients with UC and nonsevere CDI had fewer readmissions and shorter lengths of stay when treated with a vancomycin-containing regimen compared to those treated with metronidazole (30-day readmissions, 31.0% versus 0% [P=0.04]; length of stay, 13.62 days versus 6.38 days [P=0.02]). Patients with UC and nonsevere CDI have fewer readmissions and shorter lengths of stay when treated with a vancomycin-containing regimen relative to those treated with metronidazole alone. Patients with ulcerative colitis and CDI should be treated with vancomycin.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Clostridium Infections / drug therapy*
  • Clostridium difficile / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / microbiology*
  • Male
  • Metronidazole / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vancomycin / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Metronidazole
  • Vancomycin