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Review
. 2015;55(7):919-29.
doi: 10.1080/10408398.2012.657809.

Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims--A Comprehensive Review

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Review

Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims--A Comprehensive Review

Rashida Perveen et al. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. .

Abstract

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most essential herbaceous plants that have been probed against various life sight related disorders owing to array of phytochemicals. It is important source of vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, and carotenoids, such as lycopene. Carotenoids are the pigments synthesized during fruit ripening and responsible for the final red color of the tomato. Consumption of tomato and tomato-based products contribute to the absorption of carotenoids and lycopenes in human serum. Lycopene is chemically acyclic carotene with 11 conjugated double bonds, normally in transconfiguration while isomerization occur in blood plasma for its better absorption. It has ability for adenosine deaminase inhibition that plays important role in the regression of tumor. Tomato also contain other active compounds, namely, neoxanthin, lutein, α-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, cyclolycopene, and β-carotene 5, 6-epoxide. These components provide synergistic effect against various threats but still need further attention of the researchers. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the potential of tomato against variety of metabolic syndromes. Latest research highlights the relationship between consuming tomato and its products with reduced risk of various maladies like obesity, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic attributes, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgences. Moreover, tomato and its bioactive components hold potential to become effective modules in diet-based regimens; however, integrated research and meta-analysis are still required to enhance meticulousness.

Keywords: Tomato; carotenoids; functional food; lycopenes; metabolism and absorption; nutritional and health benefits.

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