The formation of pyrroline and tetrahydropyridine rings in amino acids catalyzed by pyrrolysine synthase (PylD)

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Jul 28;53(31):8150-3. doi: 10.1002/anie.201402595. Epub 2014 Jun 10.


The dehydrogenase PylD catalyzes the ultimate step of the pyrrolysine pathway by converting the isopeptide L-lysine-Nε-3R-methyl-D-ornithine to the 22nd proteinogenic amino acid. In this study, we demonstrate how PylD can be harnessed to oxidize various isopeptides to novel amino acids by combining chemical synthesis with enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography. The data enable a detailed description of the PylD reaction trajectory for the biosynthesis of pyrroline and tetrahydropyridine rings as constituents of pyrrolysine analogues.

Keywords: amino acids; dehydrogenases; enzyme catalysis; protein crystallography; pyrrolysine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Catalysis
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Ligases / chemistry*
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Lysine / chemistry
  • Pyridines / chemical synthesis*
  • Pyrroles / chemical synthesis*


  • Pyridines
  • Pyrroles
  • pyrroline
  • Ligases
  • pyrrolysine
  • Lysine
  • pyridine