Identification of novel mutations in the VPS33B gene involved in arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis syndrome

Clin Genet. 2015 Jul;88(1):80-4. doi: 10.1111/cge.12442. Epub 2014 Aug 7.


Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the VPS33B and VIPAS39. Here, we report novel mutations identified in four patients with ARC syndrome. We analyzed the entire coding regions of the VPS33B and VIPAS39 genes by direct sequencing. To detect novel splice site mutations, mRNA transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. All four patients had compound heterozygous variants in the VPS33B gene. One patient had a previously reported splice site variant with unknown significance, c.239+5G>A, and a novel nonsense mutation, c.621G>A. The other three patients had the c.403+2T>A mutation, and each of them carried one of the splice site variants, c.239+5G>A or c.499-11G>A. c.239+5G>A and c.499-11G>A created novel splice sites which resulted in abnormal transcripts. No significant VIPAS39 mutation was detected in all patients. In patients suspected with ARC syndrome, mutation analysis of the VPS33B gene should be employed as a primary diagnostic test before performing invasive testing procedures such as organ biopsies. Performing mRNA analysis can be useful in predicting the pathogenic phenotype when the mutation seems to affect a normal splicing mechanism.

Keywords: ARC syndrome; VPS33B; arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Arthrogryposis / diagnosis
  • Arthrogryposis / genetics*
  • Cholestasis / diagnosis
  • Cholestasis / genetics*
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype
  • RNA Splice Sites / genetics*
  • Renal Insufficiency / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency / genetics*
  • Republic of Korea
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics*


  • RNA Splice Sites
  • VPS33B protein, human
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins

Supplementary concepts

  • Arthrogryposis renal dysfunction cholestasis syndrome