Growing evidence shows that gut microbes are key factors involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolic inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, gut microbiota modulations caused by selectively fermented oligosaccharides or probiotic bacteria constitute an interesting target in the physiopathology of obesity. However, to date, no probiotic yeast has been investigated in this context. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the most-studied probiotic yeast (i.e., Saccharomyces boulardii Biocodex) on obesity and associated metabolic features, such as fat mass development, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation, in obese mice. S. boulardii was administered daily by oral gavage to leptin-resistant obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks. We found that S. boulardii-treated mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. Interestingly, these effects of S. boulardii on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. S. boulardii increased cecum weight and cecum tissue weight but also induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum, family, and genus levels. These gut microbiota changes in response to S. boulardii may also be correlated with the host metabolism response. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that S. boulardii may act as a beneficial probiotic treatment in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Importance: To date, no probiotic yeast have been investigated in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we found that type 2 diabetic and obese mice (db/db) treated with Saccharomyces boulardii exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. These effects on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. Importantly, by using pyrosequencing, we found that S. boulardii treatment induces changes of the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, family, and genus levels. Moreover, we found that gut microbiota changes in response to S. boulardii were correlated with several host metabolism responses.
Copyright © 2014 Everard et al.