The global phosphoproteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals complex organellar phosphorylation in the flagella and thylakoid membrane

Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014 Sep;13(9):2337-53. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M114.038281. Epub 2014 Jun 10.


Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most intensively-studied and well-developed model for investigation of a wide-range of microalgal processes ranging from basic development through understanding triacylglycerol production. Although proteomic technologies permit interrogation of these processes at the protein level and efforts to date indicate phosphorylation-based regulation of proteins in C. reinhardtii is essential for its underlying biology, characterization of the C. reinhardtii phosphoproteome has been limited. Herein, we report the richest exploration of the C. reinhardtii proteome to date. Complementary enrichment strategies were used to detect 4588 phosphoproteins distributed among every cellular component in C. reinhardtii. Additionally, we report 18,160 unique phosphopeptides at <1% false discovery rate, which comprise 15,862 unique phosphosites - 98% of which are novel. Given that an estimated 30% of proteins in a eukaryotic cell are subject to phosphorylation, we report the majority of the phosphoproteome (23%) of C. reinhardtii. Proteins in key biological pathways were phosphorylated, including photosynthesis, pigment production, carbon assimilation, glycolysis, and protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and it is noteworthy that hyperphosphorylation was observed in flagellar proteins. This rich data set is available via ProteomeXchange (ID: PXD000783) and will significantly enhance understanding of a range of regulatory mechanisms controlling a variety of cellular process and will serve as a critical resource for the microalgal community.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algal Proteins / metabolism*
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii / metabolism*
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Flagella / metabolism*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Polymers
  • Proteomics
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Thylakoids / metabolism*
  • Titanium


  • Algal Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Polymers
  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium