Spontaneous giant splenic hydatid cyst rupture causing fatal anaphylactic shock: a case report and brief literature review

Turk J Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb;25(1):88-91. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.3521.


Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection characterized by cyst formation in any organ, although the liver and lungs are most commonly involved. Hydatid disease of the spleen is uncommon, representing <8% of all human hydatid diseases. Splenic hydatid cysts usually coexist with liver hydatid cysts (secondary form), although the spleen is the primary location (primary form) in some cases. The clinical signs and symptoms of splenic hydatid cysts depend on their size, relationship with adjacent organs, and complications. One of the complications of splenic hydatid cysts is cyst rupture either after trauma or spontaneously as a result of increased intracystic pressure. These cysts may rupture into a hollow organ, through the diaphragm into the pleural cavity, or directly into the peritoneal cavity. A splenic hydatid cyst that ruptures into the peritoneal cavity may cause complications, including signs of peritoneal irritation, urticaria, anaphylaxis, and death, as in our case. Therefore, a hydatid cyst rupture requires both emergency surgery and careful postoperative care. In this study, we present a case of a giant splenic hydatid cyst that ruptured into the peritoneal cavity without any trauma. A review of cases reported in the English literature about splenic hydatid cyst perforation is also discussed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anaphylaxis / etiology*
  • Echinococcosis / complications*
  • Echinococcosis / pathology
  • Echinococcosis / therapy
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Rupture, Spontaneous / parasitology
  • Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology
  • Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery
  • Splenic Rupture / parasitology*
  • Splenic Rupture / pathology
  • Splenic Rupture / surgery