Vitamin D supplements and cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis

Br J Cancer. 2014 Aug 26;111(5):976-80. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.294. Epub 2014 Jun 10.


Background: Observational studies suggest that effects of vitamin D may be stronger for cancer mortality than for incidence. Yet, existing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation have limited power to examine the relationships as their primary end points are not cancer incidence or mortality.

Methods: Meta-analyses of RCTs of vitamin D supplementation and total cancer incidence and mortality were conducted.

Results: Over 2-7 years of duration, vitamin D supplementations had little effect on total cancer incidence (400-1100 IU per day, summary relative risk (RR)=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.94-1.06, I(2)=0%; four RCTs with combined 4333 cases), but significantly reduced total cancer mortality (400-833 IU per day, summary RR=0.88, 95% CI=0.78-0.98, I(2)=0%, three RCTs with combined 1190 deaths).

Conclusions: Over 2-7 years of duration, the benefit of vitamin D supplementation may be limited to cancer mortality.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Vitamin D*


  • Vitamin D