We have purified to near homogeneity a DNA polymerase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme revealed a polypeptide of 100 kDa. On the basis of a Stokes radius of 4.2 nm and a sedimentation coefficient of 6 S, the purified enzyme has an estimated molecular mass of 109 kDa. These results are consistent with the enzyme being a monomer of 100 kDa. In addition a polyclonal antiserum, obtained by injection of the electroeluted 100-kDa polypeptide into a rabbit, specifically neutralized the DNA-polymerase activity. The enzyme is sensitive to both N-ethylmaleimide and 2',3'-dideoxyribosylthymine triphosphate and resistant to aphidicolin. The purified DNA polymerase has neither exonuclease nor primase activities. In our in vitro conditions, the enzyme is thermostable up to 80 degrees C and is active between 55 degrees C and 85 degrees C in the presence of activated calf-thymus DNA.