Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction and DNA repair network are involved in aluminum-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L

Front Plant Sci. 2014 Jun 5:5:256. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00256. eCollection 2014.


In the current study, we studied the role of signal transduction in aluminum (Al(3+))-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L. The root cells in planta were treated with Al(3+) (800 μM) for 3 h without or with 2 h pre-treatment of inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein phosphatase. Also, root cells in planta were conditioned with Al(3+) (10 μM) for 2 h and then subjected to genotoxic challenge of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS; 5 mM) for 3 h without or with the pre-treatment of the aforementioned inhibitors as well as the inhibitors of translation, transcription, DNA replication and repair. At the end of treatments, roots cells were assayed for cell death and/or DNA damage. The results revealed that Al(3+) (800 μM)-induced significant DNA damage and cell death. On the other hand, conditioning with low dose of Al(3+) induced adaptive response conferring protection of root cells from genotoxic stress caused by EMS-challenge. Pre-treatment of roots cells with the chosen inhibitors prior to Al(3+)-conditioning prevented or reduced the adaptive response to EMS genotoxicity. The results of this study suggested the involvement of MAPK and DNA repair network underlying Al-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in root cells of A. cepa.

Keywords: DNA damage; DNA repair; MAP kinase; adaptive response; genome protection; metabolic inhibitors; signal transduction.