Involved-node proton therapy in combined modality therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: results of a phase 2 study

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 Aug 1;89(5):1053-1059. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.04.029. Epub 2014 Jun 10.


Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement.

Methods and materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis.

Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed.

Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes were similar to those of conventional photon therapy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy*
  • Hodgkin Disease / mortality
  • Hodgkin Disease / pathology
  • Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy*
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Irradiation / methods*
  • Male
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Middle Aged
  • Organs at Risk / radiation effects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Proton Therapy / adverse effects
  • Proton Therapy / methods*
  • Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult