Acute kidney injury associated with high nephrotoxic medication exposure leads to chronic kidney disease after 6 months

J Pediatr. 2014 Sep;165(3):522-7.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.04.058. Epub 2014 Jun 11.


Objective: To assess the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after high nephrotoxic medication exposure-associated acute kidney injury (NTMx-AKI) in hospitalized children.

Study design: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children exposed to an aminoglycoside for ≥3 days or ≥3 nephrotoxic medications simultaneously for the development of CKD at 6 months. Follow-up data >6 months after acute kidney injury (AKI) were retrieved from electronic health records. Outcomes in children with NTMx-AKI were compared with patients of same age and primary service distribution who were exposed to nephrotoxic medications but did not develop AKI (controls).

Results: One hundred patients with NTMx-AKI were assessed (mean age of 9.3 ± 6.9 years). Commonly involved services were bone marrow transplantation/oncology (59%), liver transplantation (13%), and pulmonary (13%). Pre-AKI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 119 ± 14.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range 90-150 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Mean discharge eGFR was 105.1 ± 27.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At 6 months after NTMx-AKI, eGFR (n = 77) was 113.8 ± 30.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Sixteen (20.7%) had eGFR of 60-90, 2 (2.6%) had eGFR <60, and 9 (11.6%) had eGFR >150 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (hyperfiltration). Twenty-four (68.5%) of 35 patients who were assessed for proteinuria had a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio >0.3 mg/mg, and 29 (37.6%) had hypertension. Twenty-six (33.7%) patients had CKD (proteinuria or eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). An additional 28 (36.3%) were considered to be at risk for CKD with hypertension, eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), or eGFR >150 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD, hypertension, and proteinuria were more common in the AKI cohort than in controls.

Conclusions: Six months after NTMx-AKI, 70% of patients had evidence of residual kidney damage (reduced eGFR, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, or hypertension). Few underwent a complete evaluation for CKD. With studies showing an association between AKI and CKD, we suggest systematic comprehensive follow-up in children after NTMx-AKI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / complications*
  • Aminoglycosides / adverse effects*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / chemically induced*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors


  • Aminoglycosides