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. 2014 Jul;46(7):701-6.
doi: 10.1038/ng.3012. Epub 2014 Jun 15.

Genome and Transcriptome of the Porcine Whipworm Trichuris Suis

Free PMC article

Genome and Transcriptome of the Porcine Whipworm Trichuris Suis

Aaron R Jex et al. Nat Genet. .
Free PMC article


Trichuris (whipworm) infects 1 billion people worldwide and causes a disease (trichuriasis) that results in major socioeconomic losses in both humans and pigs. Trichuriasis relates to an inflammation of the large intestine manifested in bloody diarrhea, and chronic disease can cause malnourishment and stunting in children. Paradoxically, Trichuris of pigs has shown substantial promise as a treatment for human autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and multiple sclerosis. Here we report whole-genome sequencing at ∼140-fold coverage of adult male and female T. suis and ∼80-Mb draft assemblies. We explore stage-, sex- and tissue-specific transcription of mRNAs and small noncoding RNAs.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing financial interests.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Homologs shared between T. suis (class Enoplea, order Trichocephalida) and related nematode species.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Stage- and tissue-specific small-RNA and mRNA transcriptome of T. suis.
(a) Association between gene function and alternative splice variation. Charts show the inferred function of protein domains encoded by genes showing a statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05; Pearson's chi-squared analysis) positive (+) or negative (−) bias toward skipped exon (SE), alternative first (FE) or last exon (LE) splice events. Only genes encoding ten or more transcripts are included in this analysis. (b) Proportional representation of major protein classes or groups encoded by the genome (Gen), and their proportional abundance in all transcriptomic data (All) and in larval (L1/2, L3 and L4), adult male (Am), female (Af) and tissue-specific libraries, including in the male (Mp) and female posterior body (Fp) and the stichosome (St). (c) Self-organizing heatmap (transcripts per million (TPM) values normalized by gene) clustering miRNAs by their transcription abundance (represented as log2-transformed reads per kilobase per million reads (RPKM) values) in each larval, adult and tissue-specific library. (d) Self-organizing heatmap (TPM values normalized by gene) clustering 22A-RNAs by their transcription abundance (represented as log2-transformed RPKM values) in each larval, adult and tissue-specific library.

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