Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Sep;22(9):2047-52. doi: 10.1002/oby.20805. Epub 2014 Jun 13.


Objective: The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented.

Methods: A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included. Subjects were instructed to eat a test meal (490 kcal). Plasma samples were collected for hormone and glucose analysis.

Results: Obese adolescents were insulin resistant as expressed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and had significantly increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels compared to the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.044, respectively). In response to the meal, the increase in GLP-1 levels was reduced in obese adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, amylin secretion was significantly increased in the obese population compared to the control group (P < 0.005).

Conclusions: Obese adolescents have increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels and attenuated post-prandial GLP-1 concentrations compared with the control group. These factors could contribute to the metabolic syndrome.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / blood*
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Glucagon / blood
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide / blood
  • Male
  • Meals*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism
  • Pediatric Obesity / metabolism*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Satiation / physiology*


  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon