The spread of carbapenemase producers in Enterobacteriaceae has now been identified worldwide. Three main carbapenemases have been reported; they belong to three classes of β-lactamases, which are KPC, NDM, and OXA-48. The main reservoirs of KPC are Klebsiella pneumoniae in the USA, Israel, Greece, and Italy, those of NDM are K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in the Indian subcontinent, and those of OXA-48 are K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in North Africa and Turkey. KPC producers have been mostly identified among nosocomial isolates, whereas NDM and OXA-48 producers are both nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. Control of their spread is still possible in hospital settings, and relies on the use of rapid diagnostic techniques and the strict implemention of hygiene measures.
Keywords: Carbapenemase; Enterobacteriaceae; KPC; NDM; OXA-48.
© 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.