Single and combined effects of exposure concentration and duration on biological responses of Ceratophyllum demersum L. exposed to Cr species

Int J Phytoremediation. 2014;16(7-12):1192-208. doi: 10.1080/15226514.2013.821450.


This study aimed to demonstrate the ways in which two chromium species, Cr (III) and Cr (VI), can affect various physiological and biochemical parameters in the plant Ceratophyllum demersum L., and to evaluate the single and combined impact of exposure concentration and duration. C. demersum was exposed to Cr (III) and Cr (VI) at a variety of concentrations (1, 2, 5, and 10 mM) and for differing durations (1, 2, 4, and 7 days), after which Cr accumulation, relative growth rate (RGR), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, electrical conductivity (EC), photosynthetic pigmentation, proline content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined. The single and combined effects of exposure duration and Cr concentration on each parameter were determined using a two-way analysis of variance. For both the Cr (III) and Cr (VI) applications, it was observed that concentration had a significant effect on all parameters assessed. However, duration had no statistically significant effect on proline content in the Cr (III) application, or on MDA and protein content in the Cr (VI) application. It was determined that concentration exerted greater effects than duration for both Cr species studied. In addition, the results indicated that duration and concentration had a synergistic effect on variations of RGR, EC, protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activities in both the Cr (III) and Cr (VI) applications. These results may be useful when planning further phytoremediation and plant biotechnology studies.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Chlorophyll / metabolism
  • Chlorophyll A
  • Chromium / analysis
  • Chromium / metabolism
  • Chromium / pharmacology*
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Magnoliopsida / drug effects*
  • Magnoliopsida / physiology
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Photosynthesis
  • Proline / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Chromium
  • Chlorophyll
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Proline
  • Chlorophyll A