Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2014 Jul;134(1):e112-9.
doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3962. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Cardiovascular Responses to Caffeine by Gender and Pubertal Stage

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Cardiovascular Responses to Caffeine by Gender and Pubertal Stage

Jennifer L Temple et al. Pediatrics. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Caffeine use is on the rise among children and adolescents. Previous studies from our laboratory reported gender differences in the effects of caffeine in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that gender differences in cardiovascular responses to caffeine emerge after puberty and that cardiovascular responses to caffeine differ across the phases of the menstrual cycle.

Methods: To test these hypotheses, we examined heart rate and blood pressure before and after administration of placebo and 2 doses of caffeine (1 and 2 mg/kg) in prepubertal (8- to 9-year-olds; n = 52) and postpubertal (15- to 17-year-olds; n = 49) boys (n = 54) and girls (n = 47) by using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response design.

Results: There was an interaction between gender and caffeine dose, with boys having a greater response to caffeine than girls. In addition, we found interactions between pubertal phase, gender, and caffeine dose, with gender differences present in postpubertal, but not in prepubertal, participants. Finally, we found differences in responses to caffeine across the menstrual cycle in post-pubertal girls, with decreases in heart rate greater in the midluteal phase and blood pressure increases greater in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle.

Conclusions: These data suggest that gender differences in response to caffeine emerge after puberty. Future research will determine the extent to which these gender differences are mediated by physiological factors, such as steroid hormones, or psychosocial factors, such as more autonomy and control over beverage purchases.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Mean ± SEM changes in average heart rate (HR) (A) diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (B), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (C) between 0- and 2-mg/kg doses of caffeine in prepubertal and postpubertal boys and girls. Because there were no effects of time and no differences between the 1- and 2-mg/kg doses, the data shown are the average changes from baseline and are from the 2-mg/kg condition. There were no gender differences in any of the measures in the prepubertal participants, but there were gender differences in all of the postpubertal participants. *Significantly different from postpubertal boys, P < .05.
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Mean ± SEM changes in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in postpubertal girls in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Caffeine administration lowered heart rate significantly more in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase and increased SBP and DBP significantly more in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (all P < .05).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 9 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

Feedback