PLA2R1 is a large transmembrane receptor of 180-kDa that belongs to the superfamily of C-type lectins. It was discovered because of its high affinity for secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2), enzymes that play a key role in lipid mediator synthesis. Early PLA2R1 physiological roles include the clearance of sPLA2 from the extracellular medium and/or promotion of their actions. Over the last four years, two independent studies suggested that PLA2R1 plays a role in cancer as a tumor gene suppressor and is the major target antigen of auto-immune antibodies involved in idiopathic membranous nephropathy, a severe human kidney disease. These novel findings shed light on PLA2R1 and pave the way for its use as a reliable biomarker and an attractive therapeutic target in these diseases.
© 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.