Objective: The relationship between the wound contraction and levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) has been revealed in different studies. We aimed to investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), mainly bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and find out the α-SMA, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transforming growth factor beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels on an in vivo acute wound healing model after the application of MSCs. Approach: Four circular skin defects were formed on the dorsum of Fisher rats (n=20). The defects were applied phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), ASCs, BSCs, and patchy skin graft, respectively. The healing time and scar area were noted. Results: There was a statistical decrease in the healing time in ASC, BSC, and skin graft groups (p<0.05). However, the scar was smaller in the PBS group (p<0.05). The α-SMA levels were statistically lower in ASC, BSC, and graft groups (p<0.05). The FGF levels were statistically higher in ASC and BSC groups (p<0.05). The differentiation of the injected MSCs to endothelial cells and keratinocytes was observed. Innovation and Conclusion: MSCs decrease the healing time and contraction of the wound while increasing the epithelization rate by increasing angiogenesis.