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. 2014 Jun;8(3):272-7.
doi: 10.4162/nrp.2014.8.3.272. Epub 2014 May 15.

Schisandra Chinensis Baillon Regulates the Gene Expression of Phase II Antioxidant/Detoxifying Enzymes in Hepatic Damage Induced Rats

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Free PMC article

Schisandra Chinensis Baillon Regulates the Gene Expression of Phase II Antioxidant/Detoxifying Enzymes in Hepatic Damage Induced Rats

Han I Jang et al. Nutr Res Pract. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background/objectives: This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

Materials/methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection.

Results: Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC).

Conclusions: Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity.

Keywords: Schisandra chinensis baillon; Tert-butyl hydroperoxide; endogenous antioxidant capacity; hepatotoxicity.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon on serum (A) ALT and (B) AST activities in SD rats injected with t-BHP. Each bar represents the mean ± S.E. The significance of the differences between the NC and TC groups was analyzed by Student's t-test (**P ≤ 0.01). ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Effect of Schisandra chinensis Baillon on histopathologic changes in liver of SD rats injected with t-BHP. Hematoxylin-eosin staining; original magnification, 400X; sharp arrow, neutrophil infiltration; arrow, swelling; arrowhead, necrosis. (A) NC, normal control, saline; (B) TC, t-BHP control, t-BHP; (C) SCE-L, low-dose SCE, t-BHP + 300 mg/kg B.W. SCE; (D) SCE-M, medium-dose SCE, t-BHP + 600 mg/kg B.W. SCE; and (E) SCE-H, high-dose SCE, t-BHP + 1200 mg/kg B.W. SCE.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon administration on hepatic mRNA expression of (A) HO-1, (B) GST, (C) GCLC, and (D) GCLM in SD rats injected with t-BHP. Each bar represents the mean ± S.E. The significance of the differences between the NC and TC groups was analyzed by Student's t-test (**P ≤ 0.01). The significance of the differences between the TC and SCEs groups was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Dunnett's multiple-comparison test (#P ≤ 0.05 and ##P ≤ 0.01). HO-1, heme oxygenase-1; GST, glutathione S-transferase; GCLC, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit; GCLM, glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit.

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