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. 2014 Jun 19;9(6):e100774.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100774. eCollection 2014.

Hydrogen-saturated Saline Protects Intensive Narrow Band Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs Through an Antioxidant Effect

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Free PMC article

Hydrogen-saturated Saline Protects Intensive Narrow Band Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs Through an Antioxidant Effect

Liwei Chen et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate hydrogen-saturated saline protecting intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss. Guinea pigs were divided into three groups: hydrogen-saturated saline; normal saline; and control. For saline administration, the guinea pigs were given daily abdominal injections (1 ml/100 g) 3 days before and 1 h before narrow band noise exposure (2.5-3.5 kHz 130 dB SPL, 1 h). The guinea pigs in the control group received no treatment. The hearing function was assessed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) recording. The changes of free radicals in the cochlea before noise exposure, and immediately and 7 days after noise exposure were also examined. By Scanning electron microscopy and succinate dehydrogenase staining, we found that pre-treatment with hydrogen-saturated saline significantly reduced noise-induced hair cell damage and hearing loss. We also found that the malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation, and hydroxyl levels were significantly lower in the hydrogen-saturated saline group after noise trauma, indicating that hydrogen-saturated saline can decrease the amount of harmful free radicals caused by noise trauma. Our findings suggest that hydrogen-saturated saline is effective in preventing intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss through the antioxidant effect.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Noise-induced ABR threshold shifts.
Immediately after noise exposure (130 dB SPL for 1 h), the ABR threshold of the hydrogen-saturated saline and normal saline groups was 54 dB and 62 dB, respectively. The ABR was subsequently tested 14 days after noise exposure. The hydrogen-saturated saline group had less of an ABR threshold shift compared to the normal saline group, 3, 7, and 14 days after noise exposure. HS: hydrogen-saturated saline group; NS: normal saline group. **P<0.01: vs. NS; ##P<0.01: control vs. HS.
Figure 2
Figure 2. DPOAE amplitudes were detected before and after noise exposure.
(A) The average DPOAE amplitudes were normal in the three groups before noise exposure. (B) The average DPOAE amplitudes were markedly decreased 7 days after noise exposure. There were significant differences in the mean DPOAE amplitudes between the hydrogen-saturated and normal saline groups at frequencies of 0.5–4 kHz. (C) 14 days after noise exposure, the DPOAE amplitudes of the hydrogen-saturated saline group were significantly better than the normal saline group, especially at frequencies of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kHz. HS: hydrogen-saturated saline group; NS: normal saline group; *P<0.05, **P<0.01: hydrogen-saturated saline group vs. normal saline group.
Figure 3
Figure 3. SEM findings after noise exposure.
Fourteen days after noise trauma, scanning electron microscopy was performed. After pre-treatment with hydrogen-saturated saline, damage to the stereocilia of hair cells decreased significantly compared with the normal saline group. (A) Control group. (B) Hydrogen-saturated saline group. (C) Normal saline group. In: inner hair cell layer. O1–3: outer hair cell layers.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Surface preparation of the organ of Corti in the basal turn stained with SDH.
Seven days after noise exposure, the cochleae were stained with SDH. The staining and the morphology of the hair cells in the hydrogen-saturated saline group were superior to the normal saline group. (A) Control group. (B) Hydrogen-saturated saline group. (C) Normal saline group. O1–3: outer hair cell layers. “↑”: dropsical hair cells.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Free radicals in the cochleae were detected after noise exposure.
(A, B) After noise exposure, the LPO and MDA levels of the normal saline group were significantly higher than the hydrogen-saturated saline group. (C) Immediately after noise exposure, the content of ·OH in the cochleae of the normal saline group was significantly higher than the hydrogen-saturated saline group. The difference was abolished by the 7th day after noise exposure. D0/D7+HS: immediately/7days after noise exposure of hydrogen-saturated saline group. D0/D7+NS: immediately/7days after noise exposure of normal saline group. *P<0.05, **P<0.01: vs. control. #P<0.05, ##P<0.01: D0+NS vs. D0+HS. ΔP<0.05, ΔΔP<0.01: D7+NS vs. D7+HS.

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Grant support

This project was supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 81241034, No. 81271081, No.30971199, http://www.nsfc.gov.cn). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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