Efficient ΦC31 integrase-mediated site-specific germline transformation of Anopheles gambiae

Nat Protoc. 2014 Jul;9(7):1698-712. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.117. Epub 2014 Jun 19.


Current transgenic methodology developed for mosquitoes has not been applied widely to the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, which has proved more difficult to genetically manipulate than other mosquito species and dipteran insects. In this protocol, we describe ΦC31-mediated site-specific integration of transgenes into the genome of A. gambiae. The ΦC31 system has many advantages over 'classical' transposon-mediated germline transformation systems, because it allows integration of large transgenes at specific, characterized genomic locations. Starting from a general protocol, we have optimized steps from embryo collection to co-injection of transgene-containing plasmid and in vitro-produced ΦC31 integrase mRNA. We also provide tips for screening transgenic larvae. The outlined procedure provides robust transformation in A. gambiae, resulting in homozygous transgenic lines in ∼2-3 months.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • Genetic Engineering / methods*
  • Integrases / genetics*
  • Larva / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Transformation, Genetic*


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Integrases