NAPSAQ-1: National Patient Sleep Assessment Questionnaire in depression

Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2009;13(1):48-58. doi: 10.1080/13651500802450498.


Objectives. Sleep disturbance is a common feature of depression. Symptoms often persist after treatment of the depressive episode, representing a risk factor for relapse. There is a lack of data regarding the nature of sleep disturbance in depression in the UK. Methods. We surveyed patients' views about their depressive symptoms and associated sleep difficulties. We received 513 responses via postal questionnaire. Results. A total of 97% reported sleep difficulties during depression: symptoms of insomnia were more frequently reported than hypersomnia. Ninety-nine percent of those with sleep problems also reported daytime symptoms including lack of concentration, exhaustion and lethargy, no energy and feeling sleepy; 40% admitted napping during the day; 59% indicated that poor sleep greatly affected their quality of life (QOL); 34% considered it to be "very distressing"; 69% of respondents were taking antidepressant medication at the time (44% said it improved their sleep, 56% said it had no effect or worsened their sleep); 69% had sought extra treatment for their sleep problems. Conclusions. Sleep disturbance in depression is a common and distressing problem that seems relatively unresolved by treatment. There is a need for more successful management in order to improve QOL in these patients and reduce a factor in depressive relapse.

Keywords: Sleep; depression; hypersomnia; insomnia; questionnaire.