Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fractions were obtained from smooth cultures of Brucella abortus strains 2308 and S-19 by butanol extraction procedures. The LPS from the initial butanol extraction contained 10 to 15% protein and was reduced to less than 1% protein by treatment with proteinase K. The LPS fractions were identified and characterized on the basis of the chemical analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, cesium chloride gradients, electron microscopy, and gel immunodiffusion. Results indicated that the butanol procedure is a reliable method in the extraction of LPS from Brucella abortus cells. Proteinase K-treated LPS containing less than 1% protein from strain 2308 was used to vaccinate BALB/cByJ mice. Immune and protective criteria for vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice were increased immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) titers in sera of prechallenge-exposed mice, reduced colony-forming units/spleen, and splenomegaly in post-challenge-exposed mice. Results indicated that proteinase K-treated LPS was immunogenic as well as protective for mice.