The theory and fundamentals of bioimpedance analysis in clinical status monitoring and diagnosis of diseases

Sensors (Basel). 2014 Jun 19;14(6):10895-928. doi: 10.3390/s140610895.


Bioimpedance analysis is a noninvasive, low cost and a commonly used approach for body composition measurements and assessment of clinical condition. There are a variety of methods applied for interpretation of measured bioimpedance data and a wide range of utilizations of bioimpedance in body composition estimation and evaluation of clinical status. This paper reviews the main concepts of bioimpedance measurement techniques including the frequency based, the allocation based, bioimpedance vector analysis and the real time bioimpedance analysis systems. Commonly used prediction equations for body composition assessment and influence of anthropometric measurements, gender, ethnic groups, postures, measurements protocols and electrode artifacts in estimated values are also discussed. In addition, this paper also contributes to the deliberations of bioimpedance analysis assessment of abnormal loss in lean body mass and unbalanced shift in body fluids and to the summary of diagnostic usage in different kinds of conditions such as cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neural and infection diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Body Composition / physiology*
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / instrumentation*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Plethysmography, Impedance / instrumentation
  • Plethysmography, Impedance / methods*