Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been recently identified as a target of humoral autoimmunity in a small subgroup of patients with non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (NPLE). We present a patient with NPLE and positive anti-GAD antibodies who showed significant improvement after long-term immunotherapy. A 48-year old female was admitted with a two-year history of anterograde amnesia and seizures. Brain MRI revealed bilateral lesions of medial temporal lobes. Screening for anti-neuronal antibodies showed high anti-GAD titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with strong evidence of intrathecal production. The patient received treatment with prednisolone and long-term plasma exchange. During a 12-month follow-up, she exhibited complete seizure remission and an improvement in memory and visuo-spatial skills. Anti-GAD antibodies may serve as a useful marker to identify a subset of NPLE patients that respond to immunoregulatory treatment.
Keywords: Autoimmune; Glutamic acid decarboxylase; Limbic encephalopathy; Plasma exchange; Steroids; Treatment.
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