Background: The aim was to examine the prevalence and consequences of co-occurring insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms in depressed adults drawn from a representative sample of the U.S. population.
Method: Data from 687 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) respondents meeting criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year were included. Respondents completed clinical interviews that assessed 12-month DSM-IV disorders, impairment, mental health treatment, and depressive symptom severity. Outcomes were compared between respondents who experienced insomnia symptoms-only (N=404), hypersomnia symptoms-only (N=44), both insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms (N=184) and no sleep problems (N=55) during an MDE.
Results: Insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms co-occurred in 27.7% of respondents with past-year MDEs, most frequently in bipolar spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder with dysthymia. Similar to the insomnia-only group, respondents with co-occurring sleep disturbances had more severe depression, and higher rates of past-year impulse control disorders and suicide planning. Similar to the hypersomnia-only group, respondents with co-occurring sleep disturbances had higher rates of past-year drug use disorders and suicide attempts. Compared to the insomnia-only and no sleep problem groups, respondents with both sleep disturbances were more frequently in mental health treatment, seeing a general practitioner, and taking antidepressants.
Limitations: The NCS-R is cross-sectional and did not evaluate sleep disorder diagnoses.
Conclusions: Co-occurring insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms were associated with a more severe MDE. Further research is warranted to more fully understand the joint presentation of insomnia and hypersomnia in depression.
Keywords: Depression; Hypersomnia; Insomnia; Mood disorders.
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