Acute encephalitis in children: Progress and priorities from an Australasian perspective

J Paediatr Child Health. 2015 Feb;51(2):147-58. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12650. Epub 2014 Jun 22.


Encephalitis is a complex neurological syndrome caused by inflammation of the brain that occurs with highest incidence in children. It is challenging to diagnose and manage due to the variety of aetiologies and non-specific clinical presentations. We discuss the recent progress in clinical case definitions; review recent, large, prospective epidemiological studies; and describe aetiologies. We emphasise infectious causes relevant to children in Australasia but also consider emerging immune-mediated syndromes responsive to immune therapies. We identify priorities for future research in children, given the potential for climate change and international travel to influence the emergence of infectious agents in our region.

Keywords: Asia; Australia; aetiology; child; encephalitis; epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Australasia / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Climate Change
  • Communicable Diseases / microbiology*
  • Communicable Diseases / virology*
  • Encephalitis / diagnosis
  • Encephalitis / epidemiology
  • Encephalitis / etiology*
  • Encephalitis / immunology*
  • Encephalitis / therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Incidence
  • Risk Factors
  • Travel